Топик по английскому языку "Florida - Флорида"
Florida is one of the USA states. It is located in the south-eastern part of the USA. It is a peninsula territory. The capital of the state is Tallahassee.
The total population of Florida is about 16,000,000. It occupies the 4th place in the USA according to the number of citizens. The total area of the state is about 58,500 square miles. The great deal of territory is covered by marshes.
It stretches from north to south on 447 miles and from east to west on 361 miles. The total length of the beaches is 663 miles.
The biggest city is Miami.
Written records about Florida date back to the arrival of the Spanish explorer and adventurer Juan Ponce de Leon in 1513.
He called the area la Florida, in honour of Pascua florida («feast of the flowers»), Spain's Easter time celebration. Other Europeans may have reached Florida earlier, but no firm evidence of such achievement has been found.
Spain was not the only European nation that found Florida attractive. In 1562 the French explored the area. These French adventurers prompted Spain to accelerate her plans for colonization. In fact, in the beginning of the 17th century Spain's power over what is now the south-eastern United States was unquestioned.
Britain gained control of Florida in 1763 in exchange for Havana, Cuba, which the British had captured from Spain during the Seven Years' War (1756-63). Spain evacuated Florida after the exchange, leaving the province virtually empty. The British had ambitious plans for Florida.
It was split into two parts: East Florida and West Florida. The two Floridas remained loyal to Great Britain throughout the War for American Independence (1776-83);
However, Spain, participating indirectly in the war, captured West Florida from the British in 1781. In 1784 it regained control of the rest of Florida as part of the peace treaty that ended the American Revolution.
When the British evacuated Florida, Spanish colonists as well as settlers from the newly formed United States came pouring in. Finally, after several official and unofficial U.S. military expeditions into the territory, Spain formally ceded Florida to the United States in 1821.
Territorial Period began and on March 3, 1845 Florida became the twenty-seventh state of the United States.